The General Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Physics Education
Tolga Gok 1  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
University of Dokuz Eylul, Torbali Vocational School of Higher Education, Izmir, Turkey
Publish date: 2017-10-13
 
International Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education 2010;2(2):110–122
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Problem solving is one of the primary tools for college and university science instruction. In this study, the review of problem solving and metacognition skills of students was presented. Basically, at the first step, problem solving was defined and then the differences of the experienced and inexperienced problem solvers were considered. Various strategy steps of problem solving reported in the open literature were discussed. Metacognition was introduced as an important part of problem solving process. The research available in the literature indicated that teaching problem solving strategies help students but not sufficient to promote true science expertise. Meta-cognitive skills should be clearly taught to build structured knowledge and develop desirable habits of mind, and to guide students through the stages of cognitive development.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Tolga Gok   
University of Dokuz Eylul, Torbali Vocational School of Higher Education, Izmir, Turkey
 
REFERENCES (74):
1. Amigues, R. (1988). Peer interaction in solving physics problems: Sociocognitive confrontation and metacognitive aspects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,45, 141-158.
2. Anderson, D., Nashon, M. (2006). Predators of knowledge construction: Interpreting students’ metacognition in an amusement park physics program. Science Education,1-23.
3. Artz, F., Armour-Thomas, E. (1992). Development of a cognitive-metacognitive framework for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving in small groups. Cognition and Instruction, 9, 137-175.
4. Bagno, E., Eylon, Bat-S. (1997). From problem solving to a knowledge structure: An example from the domain of electromagnetism. American Journal of Physics, 65, 726-736.
5. Baker, L. Cerro, L. C. (2000). Assessing metacognition in children and adults. In G. Schraw & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the measurement of metacognition (pp.99- 145). Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
6. Bascones, J., Novak, V., Novak, J. D. (1985). Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem-solving skills in physics. European Journal of Science Education, 7(3), 253-261.
7. Bennett, W. (2008). Problem solving: can anybody do it? Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 9, 60-64.
8. Bolton. J., Ross, S. (1997). Developing students’ physics problem-solving skills. Physics Education, 32, 176-185.
9. Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Eds.), Advances in instructional psychology (Vol. 1) (pp.77-165). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
10. Chi, T., Feltovich, P., Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121-152.
11. Cooper, M., Cox, C., Nammouz, M., Case, E. (2008). An assessment of the effect of collaborative groups on students’ problem-solving strategies and abilities. Journal of Chemical Education, 85, 866-872.
12. Desoete, A. (2008). Multi-method assessment of metacognitive skills in elementary school children: How you test is what you get. Metacognition and Learning, DOI.10.1007/s11409-008-9026-0.
13. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. London: D. C. Heath & Company.
14. Dufrense, R., Gerace, W., Leonard, J. (1997). Solving physics problems with multiple representations. Physics Teacher, 35, 270.
15. Elshout, J. J. (1987). Problem-solving and education. In E. De Corte, H. Lodewijks, R.Parmentier & P. Span (Eds.), Learning and instruction: European research in an international context (Vol. 1) (pp.259-274). Oxford: Leuven University Press and Pergamon Press.
16. Flavell, J. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L.B. Resnick (Eds.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-235). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
17. Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognitive and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911.
18. Garrett, R. M. (1986). Problem-solving in science education. Studies in Science Education, 13, 70-95.
19. Georghiades, P. (2004). From the general to the situated: Three decades of metacognition. International Journal of Science Education, 26(3), 365-383.
20. Gil-Perez, D., Dumas-Carre, Caillot, M., & Martinez-Torregrosa, J. (1990). Paper and pencil problem solving in the physical sciences as a research activity. Studies in Science Education, 18, 137-151.
21. Goos, M., Galbraith, P., Renshaw, P. (2002). Socially mediated metacognition: Creating collaborative zones of proximal development in small group problem solving. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 49, 193-223.
22. Harskamp, E., Ding, N. (2006). Structured collaboration versus individual learning in solving physics problems. International Journal of Science Education, 14, 1669-1688.
23. Heller, I., Reif, F. (1984). Prescribing effective human problem-solving processes: Problem description in physics. Cognition and Instruction, 1, 77–216.
24. Heller, P., Keith, R., Anderson, S. (1992). Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 1: Group versus individual problem solving. American Journal of Physics, 60, 627-636.
25. Heller, P., Hollabaugh, M. (1992). Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups. American Journal of Physics, 60, 637-644.
26. Heller, K., Heller, P. (1995). The competent problem solver, a strategy for solving problems in physics, calculus version (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: McGraw-Hill.
27. Henderson, C., Heller, K., Heller, P., Kuo, V. H. Yerushalmi, E. (2001). Instructors’ ideas about problem solving – Setting goals. Proceedings of Physics Education Research Conference, Rochester, New York, July 2001.
28. Hollingworth, W., McLoughlin, C. (2001). Developing science students’ metacognitive problem solving skills on-line. Australian J. of Educational Technology, 17, 50-63.
29. Johnstone, H., Otis, H. (2006). Concept mapping in problem based learning: a cautionary tale. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 7, 84-95.
30. Kapa, E. (2007). Transfer from structured to open-ended problem solving in a computerized metacognitive environment. Learning and Instruction, 17, 688-707.
31. Kneeland, S. (1999). Effective problem solving: Hoe to understand the process and practice it successfully. How to Books.
32. Kohl, P., Rosengrant, D., Finkelstein, N. (2007). Strongly and weakly approaches to teaching multiple representation use in physics. Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research, 3, 1-10.
33. Kohl. P., Finkelstein, N. (2008). Patterns of multiple representation use by experts and novices during physics problem solving. Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research, 010111, 1-13.
34. Kowalski, F., Gök, T., Kowalski, S. (2009). Using Tablet PCs to strengthen problem-solving skills in an upper-level engineering physics course, 39th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, October 18- 21, 2009, San Antonio, TX.
35. Kramarski, B., Mevarech, R., Arami, M. (2002). The effects of metacognitive instruction on solving mathematical authentic tasks. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 49, 225-250.
36. Kuo, V. (2004). An explanatory model of physics faculty conceptions about the problem solving process. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Minnesota.
37. Larkin, H. (1979). Processing information for effective problem solving. Engineering Education, 70, 285-288.
38. Larkin, H., Reif, F. (1979). Understanding and teaching problem-solving in physics. European Journal of Science Education, 1, 191-203.
39. Larkin, H., McDermott, J., Simon, P., & Simon, A. (1980). Model of competence in solving physics problems. Cognitive Science, 4, 317-345.
40. Larkin, J. H. (1981). Enriching formal knowledge: A model for learning to solve textbook physics problems. In J. R. Anderson (Eds.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition (pp.311- 334). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
41. Loucks, S. E. (2007). Introductory physics with algebra: Mastering problem-solving. US: John Wiley & Sons.
42. Lucangeli, D., Galderisi, D., Cornoldi, C. (1995). Specific and general transfer effects of meta-memory training. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 10, 11–21.
43. Mayer, R. E. (1991). Thinking, problem solving, cognition (2nd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
44. Mayer, R. E. (2008). Learning and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
45. Mazur, E. (1997). Peer Instruction: A user’s manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
46. McDermott, C. (1991). Millikan Lecture 1990: What we teach and what is learned-closing the gap. American Journal of Physics, 59, 301-315.
47. Meijer, J., Veenman, J., van Hout-Wolters, B. (2006). Metacognitive activities in textstudying and problem- solving: Development of a taxonomy. Educational Research and Evaluation, 12, 209-237.
48. Mestre, J. P. (2001). Implication of research on learning. Physics Education, 36, 44-51.
49. Metallidou, P. (2009). Pre-service and in-service teachers’ metacognitive knowledge about problem-solving strategies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 76-82.
50. Montague, M. (1992). The effects of cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities. J. of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
51. Newell, A., Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
52. Osborne, J., Dillon, J. (2008). Science education in Europe: Critical reflections. London: Nuffield Foundation.
53. Ozsoy, G., Ataman, A. (2009). The effect of metacognitive strategy training on mathematical problem solving achievement. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 1, 67-82.
54. Pintrich, P. R., Wolters, C. A. Baxter, G. P. (2000). Assessing metacognition and selfregulated learning. In G. Schraw, & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the measurement of metacognition (pp.43-97). Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
55. Pol, H. (2005). Solving physics problems with the help of computer-assisted instruction. International J. of Sci. Education, 27, 451-469.
56. Polya, G. (1945). How to solve it. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
57. Reif, F., Larkin, H., Brackett, C. (1976). Teaching general learning and problem-solving skills. American Journal of Physics, 44, 212-217.
58. Reif, F. (1981). Teaching problem solving: A scientific approach. The physics Teacher, 19, 310-316.
59. Reif, F., Heller, I. (1982). Knowledge structures and problem solving in physics. Educational Psychologist, 17, 102-127.
60. Reif, F. (1995). Millikan Lecture 1994: Understanding and teaching important scientific thought process. American Journal of Physics, 59, 891.
61. Robertson, W. C (1990). Detection of cognitive structure with protocol data: Redicting performance on physics transfer problems. Cognitive Science, 14, 253-280.
62. Savage, M., Williams, J. (1990). Mechanics in action-modelling and practical investigations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
63. Schraw, G, Crippen, K. J. & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139.
64. Schunk, D. H. (2000). Learning theories – An educational perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
65. Schoenfeld, H. (1985). Mathematical problem solving. San Diego: Academic Press.
66. Simon, D. P. & Simon, H. A. (1978). Individual differences in solving physics problems. In R. S. Siegler (Eds.), Children thinking: What develop? (pp.325-348). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
67. Stillman, A., & Galbraith, L. (1998). Applying mathematics with real world connections: Metacognitive characteristics of secondary students. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 36, 157-195.
68. Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science12, 257-285.
69. Teong, K. (2002). The effect of metacognitive training on mathematical word-problem solving. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 46-45.
70. Tobias, S. & Everson, H. (2000). Assessing metacognitive knowledge monitoring. In G. Schraw & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the measurement of metacognition (pp.141-222). Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
71. Tuminaro, J., & Redish, F. (2007). Elements of a cognitive model of physics problemsolving: Epistemic games. Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research, 3, 1-22.
72. Van-Heuvelen, A. (1991). Learning to think like a physicist: A review of research-based instructional strategies. American Journal of Physics, 59, 891-897.
73. Walsh, N., Robert, H., & Bowe, B. (2007). Phenomenographic study of students’ problem solving approaches in, physics. Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research, 3, 1-12.
74. Yerushalmi, E., & Magen, E. (2006). Same old problem, new name? Alerting students to the nature of the problem-solving process. Physics Education, 41, 161-167.
eISSN:1306-3049