Teaching of Apparent Mass Increase for Understanding News Media on the Higgs Boson and Crystallized Intelligence Assessment for Community College Physics Students
Keywords:internal motion, dispersion relation, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Higgs boson, fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, one-shot learning
News Media has been an obvious convenient information source for college students due to their digital experience. The recent discovery of the Higgs boson and the confirmation of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism as reported in the News Media had created confusion among our community college students as they are familiar with the concept of the negative contribution of the binding energy to the mass term taught in physics as well as in chemistry classes. Related questions such as “Would a body mass come mainly from the BEH mechanism?” would become difficult to answer without some numerical illustrations at the community college level. Given this student learning challenge, examples such as a force pulling on a composite 2-block system with internal motion and a truck as a driven oscillator on a washboard road have been formulated to supplement the News Media information. The explanation of apparent mass increase for zero initial mass (via dispersion relation) and the spontaneous symmetry breaking that would support small oscillation (bosons) at the lowest energy state with non-zero field value are also included for students interested in studying physics in a community college. Physics education research assessment in terms of fluid intelligence development, crystallized intelligence practice, and one-shot versus incremental learning are discussed.
Bragaa, M., Paccagnella, M., & Michele P., (2014). Evaluating students’ evaluations of professors Economics of Education Review Volume 41, August 2014, pp. 71–88 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775714000417
Butterworth, M., Butterworth, I., Teplitz, D., & Teplitz, V., (2011). How Particles Acquire Mass. Physics World, 6(9) http://physicsforme.wordpress.com/2011/07/24/higgs-boson-one-page-explanation/
Chen X., (2015). STEM Attrition among High Performing College Students in the United States: Scope and Potential Causes Journal of Technology and Science Education, 5(1), pp 41 http://www.jotse.org/index.php/jotse/article/view/136/150
Broglie, D. (1925a). Louis On the theory of quanta, (a translation of the thesis of de Broglie, "Recherches sur la théorie des quanta", trans. by A.F. Kracklauer), Ann. de Phys., 10e serie, t. III, (1925) http://dieumsnh.qfb.umich.mx/archivoshistoricosMQ/ModernaHist/De_Broglie_Kracklauer.pdf http://dieumsnh.qfb.umich.mx/archivoshistoricosMQ/
Broglie, D. (1925b). Louis. Sur la fréquence propre de l'électron, Comptes rendus 180, p. 498-500, (1925). http://dieumsnh.qfb.umich.mx/archivoshistoricosMQ/ModernaHist/180_498.pdf http://dieumsnh.qfb.umich.mx/archivoshistoricosMQ/
Englert, F., & Brout, R. (1964). Broken Symmetries and the Mass of Gauge Vector Bosons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 321.
Gordon, W. (1926). Der Comptoneffekt nach der Schrodingerschen Theorie, Zeit. Phys. 40, 117.
Harr, R. (2008). A Bead on a Spinning Wire http://hep.physics.wayne.edu/~harr/courses/5210/w08/lecture18.htm
Higgs, P.W. (1964a). Broken Symmetries, Massless Fields and Gauge Bosons, Phys. Lett. 12, 132.
Higgs, P.W. (1964b). Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 508.
Kaufman, A.S., Kaufman, J.C., Liu, X, & Johnson, C.K. (2009). How do educational attainment and gender relate to fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and academic skills at ages 22-90 years? Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2009 Mar; 24(2),153-63 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19185449
Kaufman, A.S., & Horn, J.L. (1996). Age changes on tests of fluid and crystallized ability for women and men on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) at ages 17-94 years. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 1996;11(2), 97-121. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14588911
Klein, O. (1926). Quantentheorie und funfdimensionale Relativitatstheorie. Zeit. Phys. 37, 895.
Kovas et al & 25 co-authors (2015). Why children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 80(July), 51–63. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886915000987
Lee, S.W. O'Doherty, JP, & Shimojo, S. (2015). Neural computations mediating one-shot learning in the human brain. PLoS Biol., 28;13(4), e1002137. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919291
Leinweber, D., (2013). Your Mass is NOT from Higgs Boson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ztc6QPNUqls http://www.physics.adelaide.edu.au/theory/staff/leinweber/
Li, Y., Gao, J., Enkavi, A.Z., Zaval, L., Weber E.U., & Johnson E.J., (2015). Sound credit scores and financial decisions despite cognitive aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112(1), 65-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25535381
Morin, D., (2015). Waves Lecture Notes: Chapter 6 Dispersion Section 6.2.2 Low-frequency cutoff equation 19 & Chapter 10 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Section 10.3.4 Tunneling http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~djmorin/waves/dispersion.pdf http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~djmorin/waves/quantum.pdf
Nambu, Y. (1960). Quasi-Particles and Gauge Invariance in the Theory of Superconductivity, Phys. Rev. 117, 648.
PhysicsNet (2015). Mass and energy http://physicsnet.co.uk/a-level-physics-as-a2/nuclear-energy/mass-and-energy/
Postlethwaite, B.E. (2011). Fluid ability, crystallized ability, and performance across multiple domains: a meta-analysis. University of Iowa Dissertation http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1255/
Rifkin, T., & Georgakakos, J.H., (1996). Science Reasoning Ability of Community College Students. ERIC Digest. ERIC Identifier: ED393505 Publication Date: 1996-03-00 http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-4/science.htm
Saliasi, E., Geerligs, L., Dalenberg, J.R., Lorist, M.M., & Maurits, N.M., (2015). Differences in cognitive aging: typology based on a community structure detection approach. Front Aging Neurosci.,19(7), 35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25852549
Schwinger, J. (1962). Gauge Invariance and Mass. Phys. Rev., 125, 397.
Vulpen, I., & Castelli, A., (2011). The Standard Model Higgs Boson: Part of the Lecture Particle Physics II, UvA Particle Physics Master 2011-2012 http://particles.nl/LectureNotes/2011-PPII-Higgs.pdf
Yukawa, H., (1935). On the Interaction of Elementary Particles. I., Proc. Phys.-Math. Soc. Japan, 17, 48.
Yukawa, H., (1950a). Quantum Theory of Non-Local Fields. Part I. Free Fields. Phys. Rev., 77, 219.
Yukawa, H., (1950b). Quantum Theory of Non-Local Fields. Part II. Irreducible Fields and their Interaction. Phys. Rev., 80, 1047.
How to Cite
Copyright © Authors